BioXmark – Clinical studies

We aim for BioXmark® to become an integrated part of cancer patient treatment workflows, enabling high precision of radiation therapy and supporting interventional oncology.


To demonstrate the value of our liquid fiducial marker for high-precision therapy, we collaborate with healthcare professionals on clinical research projects across cancer types. The results of these clinical collaborations are disseminated through independent scientific channels to increase the awareness and understanding of the possibilities offered by BioXmark to improve therapeutic precision for better outcomes.


If you are interested in a clinical collaboration to further exploit the potential of BioXmark to guide high precision cancer therapy, do not hesitate to contact us.


See below for references and links to clinical publications per cancer type. At the bottom of the page you find a link to download a complete list of BioXmark® study publications.

Bladder cancer

de Ridder M, Gerbrandy LC, de Reijke TM, Hinnen KA, Hulshof MCCM. BioXmark® liquid fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy in muscle invasive bladder cancer: a safety and performance trial. BJR. 2020 Jun 1;20200241.

Breast cancer

Ciernik IF, Greiss AM. Visualization of the tumor cavity after lumpectomy of breast cancer for postoperative radiotherapy. Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. 2019 Jan; 14:47–50.

Esophageal cancer

Machiels M, Voncken FEM, Jin P, Dieren JM van, Bartels-Rutten A, Alderliesten T, Aleman BMP, Hooft JE van, Hulshof MCCM. A Novel Liquid Fiducial Marker in Esophageal Cancer Image Guided Radiation Therapy: Technical Feasibility and Visibility on Imaging. Practical Radiation Oncology. 2019 Nov 1;9(6): e506–15.
de Blanck SR, Scherman-Rydhög J, Siemsen M, Christensen M, Baeksgaard L, Irming Jølck R, Specht L, Andresen TL, Persson GF. Feasibility of a novel liquid fiducial marker for use in image guided radiotherapy of esophageal cancer. Br J Radiol. 2018 Dec;91(1092):20180236.

Head & neck cancer

Steybe D, Russe MF, Ludwig U, Sprave T, Vach K, Semper-Hogg W, Schmelzeisen R, Voss PJ, Poxleitner P.  Intraoperative marking of the tumour resection surface for improved radiation therapy planning in head and neck cancer: preclinical evaluation of a novel liquid fiducial marker. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2021 Mar; 1;50(3):20200290.
Steybe D, Poxleitner P, Voss PJ, Metzger MC, Schmelzeisen R, Bamberg F, Kim S, Russe MF.  Evaluation of computed tomography settings in the context of visualization and discrimination of low dose injections of a novel liquid soft tissue fiducial marker in head and neck imaging. BMC Med Imaging. 2021 Oct 27;21(1):157.

Lung cancer

de Blanck SR, Rydhög JS, Larsen KR, Clementsen PF, Josipovic M, Aznar MC, af Rosenschöld PM, Jølck RI, Specht L, Andresen TL, Persson GF. Long term safety and visibility of a novel liquid fiducial marker for use in image guided radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. 2018 Nov; 13:24–8.
Scherman Rydhög J, Riisgaard de Blanck S, Josipovic M, Irming Jølck R, Larsen KR, Clementsen P, Lars Andersen T, Poulsen PR, Fredberg Persson G, Munck af Rosenschold P. Target position uncertainty during visually guided deep-inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy in locally advanced lung cancer. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2017 Apr;123(1):78–84.
Rydhög JS, Mortensen SR, Larsen KR, Clementsen P, Jølck RI, Josipovic M, Aznar MC, Specht L, Andresen TL, Rosenschöld PM af, Persson GF. Liquid fiducial marker performance during radiotherapy of locally advanced non small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2016 Oct;121(1):64–69.
Rydhög Scherman J, Perrin R, Jølck RI, Gagnon-Moisan F, Larsen KR, Clementsen P, Riisgaard de Blanck S, Fredberg Persson G, Weber DC, Lomax T, Andresen TL, Munck af Rosenschold P. Liquid fiducial marker applicability in proton therapy of locally advanced lung cancer. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2017 Mar;122(3):393–399.

Rectal cancer

Opbroek TJS, Willems YCP, Verhaegen F, de Ridder R, Hoge C, Melenhorst J, Bakers F, Grabsch HI, Buijsen J, Van Limbergen EJ, Canters RAM, Berbée M. BioXmark® liquid fiducials to enable radiotherapy tumor boosting in rectal cancer, a feasibility trial. Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology. 2022 Nov; 38:90-95.


See or download a complete list of BioXmark® study publications: BioXmark publications list