BioXmark – Non-clinical studies

Patient safety and product reliability and performance are our highest priorities. This is reflected in our commitment to research partnerships for thorough testing of BioXmark® in non-clinical settings.


Part of the non-clinical studies of BioXmark® has also demonstrated pre-clinical applicability of our liquid fiducial marker to increase precision and accuracy in Small Animal Image-Guided Radiation Therapy studies as a means to improve animal welfare in research.


See below for a list of BioXmark® non-clinical study publication and at the bottom of the page is a link to download a full BioXmark® publication list.


If you are interested in a scientific collaboration to further exploit the potential of BioXmark, do not hesitate to contact us.

In-vivo studies

Brown KH, Ghita M, Schettino G, Prise KM, Butterworth KT. Evaluation of a Novel Liquid Fiducial Marker, BioXmark®, for Small Animal Image-Guided Radiotherapy Applications.
Clerc-Renaud B, Boss M-K, Griffin LR, LaRue SM, Leary D. Potential for BioXmark liquid fiducial marker to improve identification of superficial component of canine oral tumors for computer-based radiation therapy planning. Can Vet J. 2019 Oct;60(10):1072–80.

Phantom models

Steybe D, Russe MF, Ludwig U, Sprave T, Vach K, Semper-Hogg W, Schmelzeisen R, Voss PJ, Poxleitner P. Intraoperative marking of the tumour resection surface for improved radiation therapy planning in head and neck cancer: preclinical evaluation of a novel liquid fiducial marker. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. 2020 Sep 11;20200290.
Schneider S, Aust DE, Brückner S, Welsch T, Hampe J, Troost EGC, Hoffmann AL. Detectability and structural stability of a liquid fiducial marker in fresh ex vivo pancreas tumour resection specimens on CT and 3T MRI. Strahlenther Onkol. 2019 Aug;195(8):756–63.
De Roover R, Crijns W, Poels K, Peeters R, Draulans C, Haustermans K, Depuydt T. Characterization of a novel liquid fiducial marker for multimodal image guidance in stereotactic body radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Med Phys. 2018 May;45(5):2205–17.
Schneider S, Jølck RI, Troost EGC, Hoffmann AL. Quantification of MRI visibility and artifacts at 3T of liquid fiducial marker in a pancreas tissue-mimicking phantom. Med Phys. 2018 Jan;45(1):37–47.
Dobiasch S, Kampfer S, Burkhardt R, Schilling D, Schmid TE, Wilkens JJ, Combs SE. BioXmark for high-precision radiotherapy in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor mouse model: Experiences with a liquid fiducial marker. Strahlenther Onkol. 2017 Dec;193(12):1039–47.
Jelvehgaran P, Alderliesten T, Weda JJA, de Bruin M, Faber DJ, Hulshof MCCM, van Leeuwen TG, van Herk M, de Boer JF. Visibility of fiducial markers used for image-guided radiation therapy on optical coherence tomography for registration with CT: An esophageal phantom study. Med Phys. 2017 Dec;44(12):6570–82.
Scherman JR, Irming Jølck R, Andresen TL, Munck af Rosenschöld P. Quantification and comparison of visibility and image artifacts of a new liquid fiducial marker in a lung phantom for image-guided radiation therapy: A new liquid fiducial marker for IGRT. Med Phys. 2015 May 15;42(6Part1):2818–26.
Hafeez S, Hansen VN, McNair H, Harris E, Jones K, Schmidt M, Kumar P, Huddart R. Assessing feasibility of a new fundicial marker (BioXmark) for bladder tumor localization and position verification during radical radiotherapy in a porcine phantom. Abstract 30th EUS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, 2015 May 16. (Abstract 8; P: 22)
Mortensen SR, Scherman JB, Larsen KR, Jølck RI, Persson GF, Hansen AE, Eriksen T, Specht L. Use of a Novel Liquid Fiducial Marker Injected With Endoscopic Ultrasound Equipment for Use in Image Guided Radiation Therapy of Thoracic Tumors (Porcine Model). International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics. 2014 Sep 1;90(1): S651.
Rydhög JS, Jølck RI, Andresen TL, Rosenschöld PM af. PO-0964: Artefact quantification of liquid and solid fiducial marker in single and dual energy CT with MAR. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2015 Apr 1;115: S510.

In-vitro studies

Troost E, Menkel S, Enghardt W, Hytry J, Kunath D, Makocki S, Hoffmann A, Jølck R. EP-1710: Chemical stability of BioXmark® following normofractionated and single-fraction proton beam therapy. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2017 May 1;123:S937–8.
Hamming VC, Brouwer CL, Van Goethem MJ, Jolck RI, Van Leijsen C, Van den Bergh ACM. PO-0866: Visibility, image artifacts and proton dose perturbation of fiducial markers. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2017 May;123:S471–2.

See or download a complete list of BioXmark® study publications: BioXmark publication list