Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
You might have a lot of questions regarding Nanovi or our products. Below you will find the answers on the most frequent questions we receive.
If you cannot find an answer to your question, then please don’t hesitate to contact us!
Not for the insertion of BioXmark® itself, however normal procedure adherence is recommended.
Yes, the size of each BioXmark® marker can be controlled based on the injection volume. With high-precision syringes (e.g. 3Dose) it is possible to control the volume precision to 25 µL.
Not all indications have been tested, however, marker volumes between 50-100µL would most likely be clearly visible in most indications. A study from Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, showed that even very small volumes (10µL) of BioXmark has very good contrast level when used in a thorax phantom.
Yes, BioXmark® produces a hypo-intense (dark spot) contrast in MRI.
As BioXmark® produces a hypo-intense (dark spot) contrast, the visibility will be better in presence of high-signal structures.
The visibility and artifacts of the BioXmark® on MRI has not been quantified yet. To date, however, T1sequences has shown to produce the best visibility of BioXmark® both in-vivo and ex-vivo on MRI.
Yes, BioXmark® is clearly visible on EUS when injected within field-of-view of the ultrasound transducer.
The relative stopping power ratio for the energy range 101.4Mev to 228.9MeV was found to be 1.165 for BioXmark®, which is in excellent correlation with the calculated stopping power (1.132) when calculated according to Uwe Schneider et al 1996 Phys. Med. Biol. 41.
The beam perturbation measurements of BioXmark® markers of 10-, 25-, 50- and 100uL has been investigated using iso-energy layer PBS proton fields at a range of energies (70-180 MeV) with a range of Bragg peak depth of 4.5-21.8 cm in water and ii) 4 cm SOBP with the same range of maximum proton range as for the isoenergy layer fields. BioXmark has minimal effect on the proton therapy dose distribution.